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Home » Our Eye Care Services » Vision Therapy » Expectations » Occulomotor Dysfunctions and Learning Related Vision Problems

Occulomotor Dysfunctions and Learning Related Vision Problems

In general, we expect all students enrolled in this program to improve in:

  • eye focussing
  • eye tracking
  • eye teaming
  • working memory
  • motor planning
  • sequencing
  • motion processing

More variable results are seen in:

  • rapid naming speed
  • reading - please note we are training the vision skills interfering with the ability to read and learn.  Once this is accomplished, teachers and a well-trained tutor can fill in the missing learning skills and further progress with reading.

At Valley Vision Optometry we also provide Low Vision Services.

 

References:

Eye Teaming

1. Benton CD. Management of dyslexias associated with binocular control anomalies. (in) Dyslexia: Diagnosis and treatment of reading disorders. Keeney AH, Keeney VT, Eds. St Louis: CV Mosby Co. NY, 1968:143-54.

2. Buzzelli AR. Stereopsis, accommodative and vergence facility: do they relate to dyslexia? Optom Vis Sci. 1991;68:842-6.

3. Cornelissen P, Bradley L, Fowler S, et al. Covering one eye affects how some children read. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1992;34:296-304.

4. Evans BJ. The underachieving child. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1998;18:153-9.

5. Evans BJ, Drasdo N, Richards IL. Dyslexia: the link with visual deficits. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1996;16:3-10.

6. Evans BJ, Drasdo N, Richards IL. Investigation of accommodative and binocular function in dyslexia. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1994;14:5-19.

7. Facoetti A, Molteni M. The gradient of visual attention in developmental dyslexia. Neuropsychologia. 2001;39:352-7.

8. Fischer B., Hartnegg K. Stability of gaze control in dyslexia. Strabismus. 2000;8(2):119-22.

9. Garren RB. Hemispheric laterality differences among four levels of reading achievement. Percept Mot Skills. 1980;50:119-23.

10. Haddad HM, Isaacs NS, Onghena K, et al. The use of orthoptics in dyslexia. Metab Ophthalmol. 1984-85;8:3-5.

11. Heim S, Freeman RB Jr, Eulitz C, et al. Auditory temporal processing deficit in dyslexia is associated with enhanced sensitivity in the visual modality. Neuroreport. 2001;12:507-10.

12. Latvala ML, Korhonen TT, Penttinen M, et al. Ophthalmic findings in dyslexic schoolchildren. Br J Ophthalmol. 1994;78:339-43.

13. Ludlam WM. Visual training, the alpha activation cycle and reading. J Am Optom Assoc. 1979;50:111-5.

14. Kulp MT, Schmidt PP. Visual predictors of reading performance in kindergarten and first grade children. Optom Vis Sci. 1996;73:255-62.

15. Moores E, Frisby JP, Buckley D, et al. Vergence control across saccades in dyslexic adults. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1998;18:452-62.

16. Pammer K, Lovegrove W. The influence of color on transient system activity: implications for dyslexia research. Percept Psychophys. 2001;63:490-500.

17. Safra D. Orthoptic treatment of dyslexia. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1992;200:612-3.

18. Simons HD, Grisham JD. Binocular anomalies and reading problems. J Am Optom Assoc. 1987;58:578-87.

19. Stein J. The magnocellular theory of developmental dyslexia. Dyslexia. 2001;7:12-36.

20. Stein JF, Riddell PM, Fowler S. Disordered vergence control in dyslexic children. Br J Ophthalmol. 1988;72:162-6.

21. Stein JF, Riddell PM, Fowler MS. Fine binocular control in dyslexic children. Eye. 1987;1:433-8.

22. Stein JF, Richardson AJ, Fowler MS. Monocular occlusion can improve binocular control and reading in dyslexics. Brain. 2000;123:164-70.

23. Stein JF, Riddell PM, Fowler MS. The Dunlop test and reading in primary school children. Br J Ophthalmol. 1986;70:317-20.

24. Willette TL, Early GH. Abilities of normal and reading-disabled children to combine the visual and auditory modalities with dimensions of space and time. Percept Mot Skills. 1985;61:1295-8.

25. Winner E, von Karolyi C, Malinsky D, et al. Dyslexia and visual-spatial talents: compensation vs. deficit model. Brain Lang. 2001;76:81-110.

26. Zurcher B, Lang J. Reading capacity in cases of 'cured' strabismic amblyopia. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1980;100:501-3.

Focusing

1. Grisham JD, Simons HD. Refractive error and the reading process: a literature analysis. J Am Optom Assoc. 1986;57:44-55.

2. Motsch S, Muhlendyck H. Differentiation between dyslexia and reading disorder due to ocular causes. Ophthalmologe. 2001;98:660-4.

3. Rosner J, Rosner J. The relationship between moderate hyperopia and academic achievement: how much plus is enough? J Am Optom Assoc. 1997;68:648-50.

4. Rosner J, Rosner J. Comparison of visual characteristics in children with and without learning difficulties. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1987;64:531-533.

5. Saw SM, Wu HM, Seet B, et al. Academic achievement, close up work parameters, and myopia in Singapore military conscripts. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:855-60.

6. Simons HD, Gassler PA. Vision anomalies and reading skill: a meta-analysis of the literature. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1988;65:893-904.

7. Walton HN, Schubert DG, Clark D, Burke W. Effects of induced hyperopia. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1978;55:451-5.

Rapid Jumping (Saccades)

1. Adler-Grinberg D, Stark L. Eye movements, scanpaths, and dyslexia. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1978;55:557-7.

2. Biscaldi M, Fischer B, Aiple F. Saccadic eye movements of dyslexic and normal reading children. Perception 1994;23:45-64.

3. Biscaldi M, Fisher B, Hartnegg K.  Voluntary saccadic control in dyslexia.  Perception.  May 2000; v 29;5:509-521.

4. Bruininks VL, Bruininks RH. Motor proficiency of learning disabled and nondisabled students. Percept Mot Skills. 1977;44:1131-7.

5. Crawford TJ, Higham S. Dyslexia and the centre-of-gravity effect. Exp Brain Res. 2001;137:122-6.

6. Fischer B, Hartnegg K. Effects of visual training on saccade control in dyslexia. Perception. 2000;29:531-42.

7. Fischer B, Hartnegg K, Mokler A. Dynamic visual perception of dyslexic children. Perception. 2000;29:523-30.

8. Fischer B, Hartnegg K. Saccade control in dyslexia: Development, deficits, training and transfer to reading. Optom Vis Dev 2008:39(4):181-190.

9.. Grisham, D, Powers, AB, Riles, P.  Visual skills of poor readers in high school. Optometry (2007) 78, 542-549.

10. Legein CP, Bouma H. Reading and the ophthalmologist. An introduction into the complex phenomenon of ordinary reading as a guideline for analysis and treatment of disabled readers. Doc Ophthalmol. 1982;53:123-57.

11. Riddell PM, Fowler MS, Stein JF. Spatial discrimination in children with poor vergence control. Percept Mot Skills. 1990;70:707-18.

12. Solan HA, Ficarra A, Brannan JR, et al. Eye movement efficiency in normal and reading disabled elementary school children: effects of varying luminance and wavelength. J Am Optom Assoc. 1998; 69:455-64.

Visual Motor

1. Armstrong BB, Knopf KF. Comparison of the Bender-Gestalt and revised Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Percept Mot Skills. 1982;55:164-6.

2. Bruininks VL, Bruininks RH. Motor proficiency of learning disabled and nondisabled students. Percept Mot Skills. 1977;44:1131-7.

3. Chernick B. Profile of peripheral visual anomalies in the disabled reader. J Am Optom Assoc. 1978;49:1117-8.

4. Demb JB, Boynton GM, Best M, et al. Psychophysical evidence for a magnocellular pathway deficit in dyslexia. Vision Res. 1998;38:1555-9.

5. Dykman RA, Ackerman PT, Oglesby DM, et al. Autonomic responsivity during visual search of hyperactive and reading-disabled children. Pavlov J Biol Sci. 1982;17:150-7.

6. Eden GF, VanMeter JW, Rumsey JM, et al. The visual deficit theory of developmental dyslexia. Neuroimage. 1996;4:S108-17.

7. Eden GF, Stein JF, Wood MH, et al. Verbal and visual problems in reading disability. J Learn Disabil. 1995;28:272-90.

8. Eskenazi B, Diamond SP. Visual exploration of non-verbal material by dyslexic children. Cortex. 1983;19:353-70.

9. Fahle M, Luberichs J. Extension of a recent therapy for dyslexia. Ger J Ophthalmol. 1995;4:350-4.

10. Felmingham KL, Jakobson LS. Visual and visuomotor performance in dyslexic children. Exp Brain Res. 1995;106:467-74.

11. Fichman T, Hoffman LG. The effect of time on the developmental test of visual motor integration. J Am Optom Assoc. 1983;54:639-42.

12. Leisman G, Schwartz J. Ocular-motor function and information processing: implications for the reading process. Int J Neurosci. 1977;8:7-15.

13. Keys MP, Silver LB. Learning disabilities and vision problems: are they related? Pediatrician. 1990;17:194-201.

14. Mitchell-Burns JA. Performance of children with and without learning disabilities on Canter's Background Interference Procedure and Koppitz's scoring system for the Bender test. Percept Mot Skills. 2000;90:875-82.

15. Petri JL, Anderson ME. Eye and head movements in reading-disabled and normal children. Am J Occup Ther. 1980;34:801-8.

16. Riddell PM, Fowler MS, Stein JF. Spatial discrimination in children with poor vergence control. Percept Mot Skills. 1990;70:707-18.

17. Solan HA, Ficarra A, Brannan JR, et al. Eye movement efficiency in normal and reading disabled elementary school children: effects of varying luminance and wavelength. J Am Optom Assoc. 1998; 69:455-64.

18. Stein JF, Riddell PM, Fowler S. Disordered vergence control in dyslexic children. Br J Ophthalmol. 1988;72:162-6.

19. Waldron KA, Saphire DG. Perceptual and academic patterns of learning-disabled/gifted students. Percept Mot Skills. 1992;74:599-609.

20. Wesson MD. Diagnosis and management of reading dysfunction for the primary care optometrist. Optom Vis Sci. 1993;70:357-68.

Visual Processing

1. Allegretti CL, Puglisi JT. Disabled vs. nondisabled readers: perceptual vs. higher-order processing of one vs. three letters. Percept Mot Skills. 1986;63:463-9.

2. Ayres AJ. Cluster analyses of measures of sensory integration. Am J Occup Ther. 1977;31:362-6

3. Blackwell SL, McIntyre CW, Murray ME. Information processed from brief visual displays by learning-disabled boys. Child Dev. 1983;54:927-40.

4. Blank M, Berenzweig SS, Bridger SH. The effects of stimulus complexity and sensory modality on reaction time in normal and retarded readers. Child Dev. 1975;46:133-40.

5. Borsting E, Ridder WH 3rd, Dudeck K, et al. The presence of a magnocellular defect depends on the type of dyslexia. Vision Res. 1996;36:1047-53.

6. Broman M, Rudel RG, Helfgott E, et al. Inter- and intrahemispheric processing of letter stimuli by dyslexic children and normal readers. Cortex. 1986;22:447-59.

7. Cornelissen P, Bradley L, Fowler S, et al. What children see affects how they read. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1991;33:755-62.

8. Cornelissen PL, Hansen PC, Hutton JL, et al. Magnocellular visual function and children's single word reading. Vision Res. 1998;38:471-82.

9. Crosson B. Subcortical mechanisms in language: lexical-semantic mechanisms and the thalamus. Brain Cogn. 1999;40:414-38.

10. Demb JB, Boynton GM, Best M, et al. Psychophysical evidence for a magnocellular pathway deficit in dyslexia. Vision Res. 1998;38:1555-9.

11. Di Lollo V, Hanson D, McIntyre JS. Initial stages of visual information processing in dyslexia. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1983;9:923-35.

12. Dusek et al. A survey of visual function in an Austrian population of school-age children with reading and writing difficulties. Ophthalmology 2010, 10:16.

13. Evans BJ, Drasdo N, Richards IL. An investigation of some sensory and refractive visual factors in dyslexia. Vision Res. 1994;34:1913-26.

14. Everatt J, Bradshaw MF, Hibbard PB. Visual processing and dyslexia. Perception. 1999; 28:243-54.

15. Fabbro F, Pesenti S, Facoetti A, et al. Callosal transfer in different subtypes of developmental dyslexia. Cortex. 2001;37:65-73.

16. Iles J, Walsh V, Richardson A. Visual search performance in dyslexia. Dyslexia. 2000;6:163-77

17. Fischer B, Hartnegg K, Mokler A. Dynamic visual perception of dyslexic children. Perception. 2000;29:523-30.

18. Flynn JM, Deering WM. Subtypes of dyslexia: investigation of Boder's system using quantitative neurophysiology. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1989;31:215-23.

19. Garzia RP, Nicholson SB. Visual function and reading disability: an optometric viewpoint. J Am Optom Assoc. 1990;61:88-97.

20. Griffiths TD, Penhune V, Peretz I, et al. Frontal processing and auditory perception. Neuroreport. 2000;11:919-22.

21. Graves RE, Frerichs RJ, Cook JA. Visual localization in dyslexia. Neuropsychology. 1999;13:575-81.

22. Guttentag RE. Picture-naming interference with good and poor readers. Percept Mot Skills. 1979;49:67-70.

23. Habib M. The neurological basis of developmental dyslexia: an overview and working hypothesis. Brain. 2000;123 :2373-99.

24. Johannes S, Kussmaul CL, Munte TF, et al. Developmental dyslexia: passive visual stimulation provides no evidence for a magnocellular processing defect. Neuropsychologia. 1996;34:1123-7.

25. Kak AV, Brown DR. Visual pattern perception: a multidimensional analysis of development of children's reading skills. Percept Mot Skills. 1979;49:819-30.

26. Lehmkuhle S, Garzia RP, Turner L, et al. A defective visual pathway in children with reading disability. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:989-96.

27. Livingstone MS, Rosen GD, Drislane FW, et al. Physiological and anatomical evidence for a magnocellular defect in developmental dyslexia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:7943-7.

28. Lovegrove W, Martin F, Bowling A, et al. Contrast sensitivity functions and specific reading disability. Neuropsychologia. 1982;20:309-15.

29. Lovino I, Fletcher JM, Breitmeyer BG, et al. Colored overlays for visual perceptual deficits in children with reading disability and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: are they differentially effective? J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1998;20:791-806.

30. Lewis JW, Beauchamp MS, DeYoe EA. A comparison of visual and auditory motion processing in human cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2000;10:873-88.

31. Lovegrove W, Brown C. Development of information processing in normal and disabled readers. Percept Mot Skills. 1978;46:1047-54.

32. Ludlam WM. Visual training, the alpha activation cycle and reading. J Am Optom Assoc. 1979;50:111-5.

33. Mangina CA, Beuzeron-Mangina JH. Psychophysiological treatment for learning disabilities: controlled research and evidence. Int J Psychophysiol. 1992;12:243-50.

33. Mattis T, French JH, Rapin I. Dyslexia in children and young adults: three independent neuropsychological syndromes. Dev Med Child Neurol 1975;17:150-63.

34. McKeever WF, VanDeventer AD. Dyslexic adolescents: evidence of impaired visual and auditory language processing associated with normal lateralization and visual responsivity. Cortex. 1975;11:361-78.

35. McMonnies CW. Visuo-spatial discrimination and mirror image letter reversals in reading. J Am Optom Assoc. 1992;63:698-704.

36. Naylor H, Lambert NM, Sassone DM, et al. Lateral asymmetry in perceptual judgments of reading disabled, hyperactive and control children. Int J Neurosci. 1980;10:135-43.

37. Njiokiktjien CJ, Visser SL, de Rijke W. EEG and visual evoked responses in children with learning disorders. Neuropadiatrie. 1977;8:134-47.

38. Ridder WH 3rd, Borsting E, Cooper M, et al. Not all dyslexics are created equal. Optom Vis Sci. 1997;74:99-104.

39. Shapiro KL, Ogden N, Lind-Blad F. Temporal processing in dyslexia. J Learn Disabil. 1990;23:99-107.

40. Slaghuis WL, Lovegrove WJ, Davidson JA. Visual and language processing deficits are concurrent in dyslexia. Cortex. 1993;29:601-15.

41. Solan HA, Ficarra A, Brannan JR, et al. Eye movement efficiency in normal and reading disabled elementary school children: effects of varying luminance and wavelength. J Am Optom Assoc. 1998; 69:455-64.

42. Spafford C, Grosser GS. Retinal differences in light sensitivity between dyslexic and proficient reading children: new prospects for optometric input in diagnosing dyslexia. J Am Optom Assoc. 1991;62:610-5.

43. Steinman SB, Steinman BA, Garzia RP. Vision and attention. II: Is visual attention a mechanism through which a deficient magnocellular pathway might cause reading disability? Optom Vis Sci. 1998;75:674-81.

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45. Symann-Louett N, Gascon GG, Matsumiya Y, et al. Wave form difference in visual evoked responses between normal and reading disabled children. Neurology. 1977;27:156-9.

46. Vidyasagar TR, Pammer K. Impaired visual search in dyslexia relates to the role of the magnocellular pathway in attention. Neuroreport. 1999;10:1283-7.

47. Williams MC, Lecluyse K. Perceptual consequences of a temporal processing deficit in reading disabled children. J Am Optom Assoc. 1990;61:111-21.

48. Winters RL, Patterson R, Shontz W. Visual persistence and adult dyslexia. J Learn Disabil. 1989;22:641-5.

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